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DOWNLOAD McNamaras Folly î PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB In 1966 President Lyndon Johnson and Defense Secretary Robert McNamara were desperate to find additional troops for the Vietnam War but they feared that they would alienate middle class voters if they drafted college boys or sent Reservists and National Guardsmen to Vietnam So on October 1 1966 McNamara lowered mental sta. Ebook 2h See also Gregory s 2016 talk Low Aptitude Men In The Military Who Profits Who Pays Laurence Ramberger 1991 It s not well known but one of the most consistent long term sponsors of research into intelligence has been the US military This is because contrary to lay wisdom that I only measures how well you do on a test or book learning cognitive ability predicts performance in all occupations down to the simplest manual labor this might seem surprising but there are a lot of ways to screw up a simple job and cause losses outside one s area For example aiming and pointing a rifle or throwing a grenade might seem like a simple task but it s also easy to screw up by pointing at the wrong point reuires fast reflexes reflexes are one of the most consistent correlations with intelligence memory for procedures like stripping the ability to read ammo box labels or orders as one Marine drill instructor noted and common sense like not indulging in practical jokes by tossing grenades at one s comrades and forgetting to remove the fuse common sense is not so common as the saying goes Such men were not even useful cannon fodder as they were as much a danger to the men around them as themselves never mind the enemy and jammed up the system A particularly striking non Vietnam example is the case of one of the largest non nuclear explosions ever the Port Chicago disaster which killed 320 people any complex disaster like that has many causes of course but one of them was simply that the explosives were being handled by the dregs of the Navy not even bottom decile but bottom duo decile had to look that one up and other stations kept raiding it for anyone competentGregory s book collates stories about what happened when the US military was forced to ignore these facts it knew perfectly well in the service of Robert McNamara Lyndon Johnson s Project 100000 idea to kill two birds with one stone by drafting recruits who were developmentally disabled unhealthy evil or just too dumb to be conscripted previously it would provide the warm bodies needed for Vietnam and use the military to educate the least fortunate and give them a leg up as part of the Great Society s faith in education to eliminate individual differences and refute the idea that intelligence is realIt did not go wellThe main value of the book is providing many concrete examples of what a lack of intelligence can mean useful for people who spend their whole lives in high I bubbles and have no idea of what that means examples in Gottfredson s Why g Matters The Complexity of Everyday Life the difficulty of implementing social welfare programs McNamara s education fantasies never materialized for lack of funds the enlistees not being smart enough to ualify in the first place and a forceful denunciation of the harms cruelty committed by a willful blindness to the fact of individual differences harms which fall on those least able to understand or withstand them He was perpetually angry and aggrieved and he talked back to the sergeants When they cursed him and threatened him he would say angrily I just wanna go home Why don t you let me go home The phrase banality of evil comes repeatedly to mind in examining the ramifications of McNamara s blank slatism through the military systemGregory himself received an early introduction into the topic when he showed up for boot camp and was put in charge of one of those conscripted men to his bafflement his scrawny ward Gupton was illiterate couldn t understand the idea of a war or basic training couldn t memorize his serial number didn t know who Hitler was nor what state he was from nor his grandmother s nameaddress apparently he had no parents or didn t remember them was terrified of injections endlessly fascinated by the dog tags he was reuired to wear and thought a nickel was worth than a dime because it was bigger and routinely got into trouble because he couldn t keep rankshonorifics straight or hopelessly literal understand humor or military slang in commands and while he was unable to learn to make his bed another recruit was able to eventually teach Gupton to at least tie his shoelaces The cruelties began early on when Gregory accompanies several of McNamara s morons Gupton to their barracks where they are ordered to leave their backpacks out all their money is stolen in the night by the sergeant who then tells them to report the crime to him rather than the MPs which they guilelessly do Gregory notes that the sergeants appeared to have been targeting the morons routinely and getting away with it every time Life is hard but it s much harder when you re dumbThe story of Gupton has a relatively happy ending while eventually graduating boot camp and sent to Vietnam despite Gregory s attempt to get him safely discharged he apparently was sheltered by a sergeant who had a mentally handicapped sister of his own and understood survived his tour and returned eventually dying at age 57 But note that this is still far short of a normal male life expectancy the Iall cause mortality correlation is substantial particularly at an extremeOther stories did not end well Some were trapped in boot camp Gregory describes how many would be sent to remedial training repeatedly failing the exercise reuirements because they didn t understand how to correctly execute actions in swinging from monkey bars they would try to swing one bar at a time coming to a halt each time in running an obstacle course they would have to pause in front of each arrow and think about what an arrow meant before understanding which direction to go costing them too much time to ever beat the deadline they would insist on throwing grenades like a baseball directly to the target not understanding that throwing up in a parabola would gain them the necessary distance and in the mile run they would sprint as fast as possible at the start and be surprised when they became utterly exhausted long before the finish line One mutinied from the drills under the impression that being sent to the stockade meant going home until it was explained to him that the word meant jail One thing worth noting is that many of the short or unintelligent people came from very poor environments In thinking about the past it s easy to forget how poor the USA was until recently the USA during Vietnam to say nothing of earlier The life of American workers in 1915 was what we would consider a Third World country Gupton for example was very thin ate ravenously during training and had abscessed teeth because he had never seen a dentist in his part of Appalachia one enlistee considered himself blessed to be in the Army rather than Mississippi where he could eat meat every day indeed every meal of which there were three got beautiful new clothes free doctor dentist visits and was even paid money once a month another enlistee was thrilled about how he could suddenly see people s faces now that he had glasses after an Army doctor gave him a vision test Nevertheless the improved environment of the Army appears to have made little difference It is not surprising that McNamara s morons could be spotted on sight because of their shortness funny looking faces and general ugliness to the point where Gregory goes into detail about the one exception the handsome Freddie Hensley who nevertheless was not the sharpest tool in the shed to the surprise of everyone interacting with him and discovering things like his reflexes being far too slow to shoot a rifle or believing that there was no connection between thunder and lightning Hensley was sent into combat and died I was not surprised to discover that he had been killed in combat With his good looks he probably was assumed to be normal and was moved along to Vietnam and sent out into the fieldBefore long she was expressing grief and anger and bewilderment She told me that when Freddie received his draft notice she and other family members went to the induction center and explained that Freddie had been in EMR educable mentally retarded classes in school and had not been able to drive a car and that it would be a mistake to draft him In response a sergeant reassured the family that Freddie would not be put into danger he would just do menial jobs such as sweeping floors and peeling potatoes He was a good boy she said When he was little we used to go everywhere together He was my Little Man She began to sob and she lamented Why did they have to draft him I want to know why When forced through basic training by hook or by crook further training generally proved pointless there weren t enough funds to pay for the extensive hand holding so the fancy education direct instruction apparently McNamara put faith in either wasn t enough or simply never happened in the first place Thus demonstrating the iron brass laws of social programs as well program efficacy always declines as it scales up because it must be run by exactly those people failing at the task in the first place for lack of resourcescompetenceincentivesmeaningful interventions Where education was tried it turned out to be futile and those who did train them found them too slow or too dangerous to trust A man assigned to t shirt printing shop was unable to understand alphabetization and had to pick out each letter for printing by scanning through the box one by one a sergeant trained two men to drive military trucks somewhat successfully but they were too dangerous drivers to be used and were transferred out another simply forgot to get back on the helicopters after a village search forcing a second retrieval mission another was lucky enough to be sheltered by his sergeant in mess hall duties until a mortar hit it killing him one played a prank on his suad mates tossing a defused grenade at them two times but on the third throw forgot to disable it another wandered away from an ambush and wandering back was killed by his suad while yet another almost shot his commander with a LAW rocket when startled another did kill his commander while on guard duty when he forgot to ask for the password before shooting another forgot to put his rifle safety on shooting a suad mate in the foot who died another tripped a booby trap while not paying attention another was captured by the NVA and went insane screaming endlessly and defecating on himself while being beaten It is unsurprising that many of them would be made to walk point or ejected somehow in addition to the constant insults and abuse a new recruit was told the NVA would kill them all in a few hours went insane from fear climbed up a flag pole and jumped off it and another was beaten to death in Marine basic training McNamara may have had good intentions but in the social sciences good results follow good intentions much as the rain follows the plow which is to say they do mostly by accident and we find it easier to tailor our preferences to the results than vice versa Only a few of the stories like the recruit who was confused by having two left boots and two right boots but no complete pairs of boots or the one who thought semen was urine or the extremely short man who received an honorable discharge medical pension for contracting the terrible disability of dwarfism in a war zone or the draftee who tried to commit suicide by drinking a bottle of Head Shoulders shampoo could be considered all that funny Most are painful to read But educational again especially if you are in a high I bubble and have a lack of empathy for what low intelligence means Once you ve read some of these anecdotes other anecdotes like Scott Alexander s experiences in Haiti no longer seem like such a stretchOne of the most striking examples is that the My Lai massacre itself may have been directly due to lowered recruiting standardsHe cited Lieutenant William Calley convicted in the murder of than 100 unarmed civilians in the My Lai Massacre in 1968 According to Arnold R Isaacs the Vietnam war correspondent for the Balti Sun Calley flunked out of Palm Beach Junior College with two C s a D and four F s in his first year and reportedly managed to get through officer candidate school without even learning to read a map or use a compass 97 Marine Corps Colonel Robert D Heinl said the Army had to take Calley because no one else was available 98 His own attorney used Calley s low intelligence as a courtroom defense the Army he said was to blame for My Lai because if it hadn t lowered mental standards men like Calley never would have been commissioned Richard A Gabriel who spent 22 years as a US Army officer says Even the staunchest defenders of the Army agree that in normal times a man of Lieutenant Calley s intelligence and predispositions would never have been allowed to hold a commission 99Gregory concludes To justify lowering test scores for entry into the military Robert McNamara said that Project 100000 men were not brain poor at birth but only privilege poor advantage poor opportunity poor 151 His description was accurate but only when applied to those men in Category IV who possessed street smarts a sound native intelligence They did poorly on the AFT not because of mental deficiency but because of substandard education learning disabilities or weak testing skills Some of them were successful in the military as I will show later in this book What McNamara failed to see was that many Project 100000 were incurably limited They were indeed brain poor for life with no hope of making huge mental improvements No amount of McNamara s audiovisual gadgetry could transform them from slow learners into bright or even average citizens But wait a minute hadn t psychologists discovered that even people with serious mental limitations were capable of absorbing much training than society had previously thought possible Yes and it was a valuable insight mentally limited persons were not hopeless they were capable of growth and maturity But here was the problem they might be able to learn how to make change but that didn t mean that they could someday create a spreadsheet They might be able to learn how to put together parts in a factory assembly line but that didn t mean they could someday operate a 105mm howitzer in battle There was no hope of dramatically lifting the I of Project 100000 men who missed a test uestion like this If a farmer had a bucket of 24 eggs and he stumbled and broke half of them how many eggs would he have left The men who missed such uestions were slow learners who were able to live happy productive lives if they had a protective environment a cozy haven with loving parents helpful friends and sympathetic bosses Such was not the case for many Project 100000 men The stories come one after another making it a gripping read and I finished it in one sittingWhile Vietnam was not lost because of Project 100k wars are usually won or lost for bigger reasons Project 100k certainly did not help matters by doubtless doing a good deal of damage the full extent of which will never be known and arguably Project 100k was symptomatic of both the ideological delusions of the American politicians high level bureaucrats which conceived and pushed through the Vietnam War and perhaps importantly was a stop gap abused to deal with the fact that they could not justify it to the public sufficiently well to get support for a true population wide draft which would touch the middle upper classes If a war cannot win the support of the populace perhaps it shouldn t be fought in the first placeI would have liked statistical and psychometric details such as a short literature review of the extensive studies of I and job performance especially in the military eg Kavanagh 2005 how the probability of combat death correlated with lower I why I interventions typically fail etc but it is probably unrealistic to expect that from Gregory and in any case given the extensive lying fraud falsification of documents misclassification of members of the 100000 etc the statistics would likely greatly understate the true outcomes Fortunately it turns out that a thorough statistical study of the available data and a followup survey is available in an earlier book the Low Aptitude Men In The Military Who Profits Who Pays Laurence Ramberger 1991 as a bonus Laurence Ramberger 1991 cover not just Project 100000 but the almost too good to be true natural experiment known as the ASVAB Misnorming where the military accidentally and unwittingly engaged in the euivalent of a second Project 100000 in peacetime Batman The Dark Knight Master Race up a simple job and cause losses outside one s area For example aiming and pointing a rifle or throwing a grenade might seem like a simple task but it s also easy to screw Imagick: The Magick of Images, Paths & Dance (Llewellyn's Practical Guide Series) up by pointing at the wrong point reuires fast reflexes reflexes are one of the most consistent correlations with intelligence memory for procedures like stripping the ability to read ammo box labels or orders as one Marine drill instructor noted and common sense like not indulging in practical jokes by tossing grenades at one s comrades and forgetting to remove the fuse common sense is not so common as the saying goes Such men were not even Blutmond Saga III useful cannon fodder as they were as much a danger to the men around them as themselves never mind the enemy and jammed Shrapnel up the system A particularly striking non Vietnam example is the case of one of the largest non nuclear explosions ever the Port Chicago disaster which killed 320 people any complex disaster like that has many causes of course but one of them was simply that the explosives were being handled by the dregs of the Navy not even bottom decile but bottom duo decile had to look that one Drive to Survive (Motorbooks Workshop) up and other stations kept raiding it for anyone competentGregory s book collates stories about what happened when the US military was forced to ignore these facts it knew perfectly well in the service of Robert McNamara Lyndon Johnson s Project 100000 idea to kill two birds with one stone by drafting recruits who were developmentally disabled Total Freedom unhealthy evil or just too dumb to be conscripted previously it would provide the warm bodies needed for Vietnam and Fluid Exchanges Artists And Critics in the AIDS Crisis use the military to educate the least fortunate and give them a leg The Ultimatum up as part of the Great Society s faith in education to eliminate individual differences and refute the idea that intelligence is realIt did not go wellThe main value of the book is providing many concrete examples of what a lack of intelligence can mean A Succubus for Valentines Day and Other Tales of Perilous Pleasures useful for people who spend their whole lives in high I bubbles and have no idea of what that means examples in Gottfredson s Why g Matters The Complexity of Everyday Life the difficulty of implementing social welfare programs McNamara s education fantasies never materialized for lack of funds the enlistees not being smart enough to أفضل الصلوات على سيد السادات صلى الله عليه وسلم ualify in the first place and a forceful denunciation of the harms cruelty committed by a willful blindness to the fact of individual differences harms which fall on those least able to Der gestiefelte Kater understand or withstand them He was perpetually angry and aggrieved and he talked back to the sergeants When they cursed him and threatened him he would say angrily I just wanna go home Why don t you let me go home The phrase banality of evil comes repeatedly to mind in examining the ramifications of McNamara s blank slatism through the military systemGregory himself received an early introduction into the topic when he showed Diseño y confección de moda. Patronaje. Las bases up for boot camp and was put in charge of one of those conscripted men to his bafflement his scrawny ward Gupton was illiterate couldn t A Dictionary Of Archaic And Provincial Words: Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs And Ancient Customs From The Fourteenth Century A-I V1 understand the idea of a war or basic training couldn t memorize his serial number didn t know who Hitler was nor what state he was from nor his grandmother s nameaddress apparently he had no parents or didn t remember them was terrified of injections endlessly fascinated by the dog tags he was reuired to wear and thought a nickel was worth than a dime because it was bigger and routinely got into trouble because he couldn t keep rankshonorifics straight or hopelessly literal Smartphones Android Y a Pas plus simple, 2e understand humor or military slang in commands and while he was The Pregnancy and Postpartum Anxiety Workbook: Practical Skills to Help You Overcome Anxiety, Worry, Panic Attacks, Obsessions, and Compulsions unable to learn to make his bed another recruit was able to eventually teach Gupton to at least tie his shoelaces The cruelties began early on when Gregory accompanies several of McNamara s morons Gupton to their barracks where they are ordered to leave their backpacks out all their money is stolen in the night by the sergeant who then tells them to report the crime to him rather than the MPs which they guilelessly do Gregory notes that the sergeants appeared to have been targeting the morons routinely and getting away with it every time Life is hard but it s much harder when you re dumbThe story of Gupton has a relatively happy ending while eventually graduating boot camp and sent to Vietnam despite Gregory s attempt to get him safely discharged he apparently was sheltered by a sergeant who had a mentally handicapped sister of his own and A Kingdom for the Brave understood survived his tour and returned eventually dying at age 57 But note that this is still far short of a normal male life expectancy the Iall cause mortality correlation is substantial particularly at an extremeOther stories did not end well Some were trapped in boot camp Gregory describes how many would be sent to remedial training repeatedly failing the exercise reuirements because they didn t Die Kreef Raak Gewoond Daaraan understand how to correctly execute actions in swinging from monkey bars they would try to swing one bar at a time coming to a halt each time in running an obstacle course they would have to pause in front of each arrow and think about what an arrow meant before هر غیر ممکنی ممکن است بیوگرافی سیده فاطمه مقیمی understanding which direction to go costing them too much time to ever beat the deadline they would insist on throwing grenades like a baseball directly to the target not Creature understanding that throwing A Maggot up in a parabola would gain them the necessary distance and in the mile run they would sprint as fast as possible at the start and be surprised when they became Che cosa resta della utterly exhausted long before the finish line One mutinied from the drills The Sikh reference book under the impression that being sent to the stockade meant going home Para Las Seis Cuerdas until it was explained to him that the word meant jail One thing worth noting is that many of the short or Penangkar Bekisar unintelligent people came from very poor environments In thinking about the past it s easy to forget how poor the USA was Love Me Anyway until recently the USA during Vietnam to say nothing of earlier The life of American workers in 1915 was what we would consider a Third World country Gupton for example was very thin ate ravenously during training and had abscessed teeth because he had never seen a dentist in his part of Appalachia one enlistee considered himself blessed to be in the Army rather than Mississippi where he could eat meat every day indeed every meal of which there were three got beautiful new clothes free doctor dentist visits and was even paid money once a month another enlistee was thrilled about how he could suddenly see people s faces now that he had glasses after an Army doctor gave him a vision test Nevertheless the improved environment of the Army appears to have made little difference It is not surprising that McNamara s morons could be spotted on sight because of their shortness funny looking faces and general Zachs Rebound Girl ugliness to the point where Gregory goes into detail about the one exception the handsome Freddie Hensley who nevertheless was not the sharpest tool in the shed to the surprise of everyone interacting with him and discovering things like his reflexes being far too slow to shoot a rifle or believing that there was no connection between thunder and lightning Hensley was sent into combat and died I was not surprised to discover that he had been killed in combat With his good looks he probably was assumed to be normal and was moved along to Vietnam and sent out into the fieldBefore long she was expressing grief and anger and bewilderment She told me that when Freddie received his draft notice she and other family members went to the induction center and explained that Freddie had been in EMR educable mentally retarded classes in school and had not been able to drive a car and that it would be a mistake to draft him In response a sergeant reassured the family that Freddie would not be put into danger he would just do menial jobs such as sweeping floors and peeling potatoes He was a good boy she said When he was little we Suomen mestari 3 used to go everywhere together He was my Little Man She began to sob and she lamented Why did they have to draft him I want to know why When forced through basic training by hook or by crook further training generally proved pointless there weren t enough funds to pay for the extensive hand holding so the fancy education direct instruction apparently McNamara put faith in either wasn t enough or simply never happened in the first place Thus demonstrating the iron brass laws of social programs as well program efficacy always declines as it scales The Greyskull LCI Method up because it must be run by exactly those people failing at the task in the first place for lack of resourcescompetenceincentivesmeaningful interventions Where education was tried it turned out to be futile and those who did train them found them too slow or too dangerous to trust A man assigned to t shirt printing shop was Le trading avec Ichimoku 2e édition : Techniques approfondies pour un trading gagnant sans stress unable to El ingenioso hidalgo don uijote de la Mancha understand alphabetization and had to pick out each letter for printing by scanning through the box one by one a sergeant trained two men to drive military trucks somewhat successfully but they were too dangerous drivers to be The Cold Spot used and were transferred out another simply forgot to get back on the helicopters after a village search forcing a second retrieval mission another was lucky enough to be sheltered by his sergeant in mess hall duties Gemina until a mortar hit it killing him one played a prank on his suad mates tossing a defused grenade at them two times but on the third throw forgot to disable it another wandered away from an ambush and wandering back was killed by his suad while yet another almost shot his commander with a LAW rocket when startled another did kill his commander while on guard duty when he forgot to ask for the password before shooting another forgot to put his rifle safety on shooting a suad mate in the foot who died another tripped a booby trap while not paying attention another was captured by the NVA and went insane screaming endlessly and defecating on himself while being beaten It is Woman in a Lampshade unsurprising that many of them would be made to walk point or ejected somehow in addition to the constant insults and abuse a new recruit was told the NVA would kill them all in a few hours went insane from fear climbed Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita (Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations) up a flag pole and jumped off it and another was beaten to death in Marine basic training McNamara may have had good intentions but in the social sciences good results follow good intentions much as the rain follows the plow which is to say they do mostly by accident and we find it easier to tailor our preferences to the results than vice versa Only a few of the stories like the recruit who was confused by having two left boots and two right boots but no complete pairs of boots or the one who thought semen was Stock Market Strategies That Work urine or the extremely short man who received an honorable discharge medical pension for contracting the terrible disability of dwarfism in a war zone or the draftee who tried to commit suicide by drinking a bottle of Head Shoulders shampoo could be considered all that funny Most are painful to read But educational again especially if you are in a high I bubble and have a lack of empathy for what low intelligence means Once you ve read some of these anecdotes other anecdotes like Scott Alexander s experiences in Haiti no longer seem like such a stretchOne of the most striking examples is that the My Lai massacre itself may have been directly due to lowered recruiting standardsHe cited Lieutenant William Calley convicted in the murder of than 100 Renaissance (1Cédérom) unarmed civilians in the My Lai Massacre in 1968 According to Arnold R Isaacs the Vietnam war correspondent for the Balti Sun Calley flunked out of Palm Beach Junior College with two C s a D and four F s in his first year and reportedly managed to get through officer candidate school without even learning to read a map or Sugar use a compass 97 Marine Corps Colonel Robert D Heinl said the Army had to take Calley because no one else was available 98 His own attorney La carabina de Zapata used Calley s low intelligence as a courtroom defense the Army he said was to blame for My Lai because if it hadn t lowered mental standards men like Calley never would have been commissioned Richard A Gabriel who spent 22 years as a US Army officer says Even the staunchest defenders of the Army agree that in normal times a man of Lieutenant Calley s intelligence and predispositions would never have been allowed to hold a commission 99Gregory concludes To justify lowering test scores for entry into the military Robert McNamara said that Project 100000 men were not brain poor at birth but only privilege poor advantage poor opportunity poor 151 His description was accurate but only when applied to those men in Category IV who possessed street smarts a sound native intelligence They did poorly on the AFT not because of mental deficiency but because of substandard education learning disabilities or weak testing skills Some of them were successful in the military as I will show later in this book What McNamara failed to see was that many Project 100000 were incurably limited They were indeed brain poor for life with no hope of making huge mental improvements No amount of McNamara s audiovisual gadgetry could transform them from slow learners into bright or even average citizens But wait a minute hadn t psychologists discovered that even people with serious mental limitations were capable of absorbing much training than society had previously thought possible Yes and it was a valuable insight mentally limited persons were not hopeless they were capable of growth and maturity But here was the problem they might be able to learn how to make change but that didn t mean that they could someday create a spreadsheet They might be able to learn how to put together parts in a factory assembly line but that didn t mean they could someday operate a 105mm howitzer in battle There was no hope of dramatically lifting the I of Project 100000 men who missed a test Je suis un zèbre uestion like this If a farmer had a bucket of 24 eggs and he stumbled and broke half of them how many eggs would he have left The men who missed such Dez Lições Fundamentais de Economia Austríaca uestions were slow learners who were able to live happy productive lives if they had a protective environment a cozy haven with loving parents helpful friends and sympathetic bosses Such was not the case for many Project 100000 men The stories come one after another making it a gripping read and I finished it in one sittingWhile Vietnam was not lost because of Project 100k wars are Kanshi The Poetry of Ishikawa Jozan and Other Edo Period Poets usually won or lost for bigger reasons Project 100k certainly did not help matters by doubtless doing a good deal of damage the full extent of which will never be known and arguably Project 100k was symptomatic of both the ideological delusions of the American politicians high level bureaucrats which conceived and pushed through the Vietnam War and perhaps importantly was a stop gap abused to deal with the fact that they could not justify it to the public sufficiently well to get support for a true population wide draft which would touch the middle Thrilling Days of Yesteryear: The Golden Age of Radio (hardback) upper classes If a war cannot win the support of the populace perhaps it shouldn t be fought in the first placeI would have liked statistical and psychometric details such as a short literature review of the extensive studies of I and job performance especially in the military eg Kavanagh 2005 how the probability of combat death correlated with lower I why I interventions typically fail etc but it is probably The Unforgiving Minute unrealistic to expect that from Gregory and in any case given the extensive lying fraud falsification of documents misclassification of members of the 100000 etc the statistics would likely greatly React: Cross-Platform Application Development with React Native: Build 4 real-world apps with React Native understate the true outcomes Fortunately it turns out that a thorough statistical study of the available data and a followup survey is available in an earlier book the Low Aptitude Men In The Military Who Profits Who Pays Laurence Ramberger 1991 as a bonus Laurence Ramberger 1991 cover not just Project 100000 but the almost too good to be true natural experiment known as the ASVAB Misnorming where the military accidentally and Nocilla Experience unwittingly engaged in the euivalent of a second Project 100000 in peacetime

CHARACTERS ß PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Hamilton GregoryMcNamaras Folly

DOWNLOAD McNamaras Folly î PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Petent in combat they endangered not only themselves but their comrades as well Their death toll was appallingly high In addition to low I men tens of thousands of other substandard troops were inducted including criminals misfits and men with disabilities This book tells the story of the men caught up in McNamara’s fol. Sometimes it is easy to get caught in a bubble of where you work and the people you hang out with Books like these are nice since they provide context and make you understand the world on a holistic level Most surprising were that the new minimum I ualifications for military service didn t seem that low to me whereas before the military reuired a score in the 31st percentile it was lowered as part of Project 100000 down to the 10th percentile Although the author goes into the fact that a large number of recruits were let in through administrative acceptance and actually had scores even lower it was still surprising to me how stark a contrast there was in 31 vs 10I would only give 35 stars however because the second part of the book becomes repetitive very uickly and probably isn t worth a read The author chooses to go into stories of individuals without ever focusing on anyone for than a few paragraphs This makes it hard to connect with those described and results in what feels like a mass of stories haphazardly smashed togetherOverall would recommend reading but only the first half parts 1 3 The author does a good job of defining any military concepts or slang which is nice for readers that don t have previous familiarity I Medici. Una famiglia al potere (eNewton Saggistica) up in McNamara’s fol. Sometimes it is easy to get caught in a bubble of where you work and the people you hang out with Books like these are nice since they provide context and make you Delinuents and Debutantes Twentieth Century American Girls' Cultures understand the world on a holistic level Most surprising were that the new minimum I Russia 1904 1924 The Revolutionary Years A History in Documentary Photographs ualifications for military service didn t seem that low to me whereas before the military reuired a score in the 31st percentile it was lowered as part of Project 100000 down to the 10th percentile Although the author goes into the fact that a large number of recruits were let in through administrative acceptance and actually had scores even lower it was still surprising to me how stark a contrast there was in 31 vs 10I would only give 35 stars however because the second part of the book becomes repetitive very Walking San Francisco: 30 Savvy Tours Exploring Steep Streets, Grand Hotels, Dive Bars, and Waterfront Parks uickly and probably isn t worth a read The author chooses to go into stories of individuals without ever focusing on anyone for than a few paragraphs This makes it hard to connect with those described and results in what feels like a mass of stories haphazardly smashed togetherOverall would recommend reading but only the first half parts 1 3 The author does a good job of defining any military concepts or slang which is nice for readers that don t have previous familiarity

Hamilton Gregory ↠ 6 DOWNLOAD

DOWNLOAD McNamaras Folly î PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Ndards and inducted thousands of low I men Altogether 354000 of these men were taken into the Armed Forces and a large number of them were sent into combat Many military men including William Westland the commanding general in Vietnam viewed McNamara’s program as a disaster Because many of the substandard men were incom. Hamilton Gregory attempts to straddle three worlds That of a historian documenting a sordid incident if the death wounding of thousands can be considered an incident On this he does an adeuate job It would have been better done for him to name names not of the handicapped persons who did their duty as best they could but of those who perpetrated these outrages MacNamara and Johnson did not act alone and Reagan s Secretary of the Navy is a public figure He does single out appropriately call out Dick Cheney and George W Bush for successfully evading service in Viet Nam as young men but interestingly except for a single positive mention not John Kerry who s Ghengis Khan comment in the early 70 s youngish and his get stuck in Ira comment of 2005 decidedly not young Unless I missed it while delving into Ira and Afghanistan he fails to mention that Bush had the courage to call up the National Guard and Reserves unlike Johnson Perhaps a simple oversight but it detracts form the case he is building That all said when appropriate he does seem to name the good guys but they always seemed to be framed as isolated casesThat was the less powerful stuffHis story is also partly as auto biographer re examining an interesting portion of his life Again he does a good job as a somewhat uniue observer Good anecdotes that helped to set the framework although I find it hard to believe any person is a saintly as he He acts as an advocate for the MacNamara s Morons On this score he does a superlative job He is sympathetic to their plight and works his way through most of the typical cases He documents of the their plight in theater and post war He is perhaps less sympathetic to the average soldier who s lives depends on theses unfortunate people who have been placed by others in the wrong place and time Easier to do when you are a rear echelon soldier I supposeHe does a cogent job of intersecting the three tasks although I think it can be reasonably said his first role that of being a historian is in conflict with the other two roles and it showed by what it omittedI too served in the military I met Sergeants corrupt and stupid and than a few who were in fact brilliant both intellectually and those with emotionally intelligence I also met native born Sergeants who could barely speak or read english and yet managed to get in during other low points in recruitment in the Carter years also not mentioned They knew their profession and euipment thoroughly and were generally good NCOsI met many officers who either kind andor intelligent I met officers who were openly racist I met officers that were jerks who would have indeed been in danger of being fragged for failing to respect even in the most militarily basic ways their subordinates I m am speaking of a person mentioned in the book Colin Powell with who I had a run in with as a PFC I did not walk away favorably impressed No wonder he repositioned himself in his tent every nightGood effort important topic Let s not do the draft again Either a nation muster up enough volunteers or it picked the wrong fight or likely the wrong politicians Rayuela up the National Guard and Reserves Jennings for Instance unlike Johnson Perhaps a simple oversight but it detracts form the case he is building That all said when appropriate he does seem to name the good guys but they always seemed to be framed as isolated casesThat was the less powerful stuffHis story is also partly as auto biographer re examining an interesting portion of his life Again he does a good job as a somewhat Out of the Frying Pan Into the Choir A Ruby the Rabbi's Wife Mystery uniue observer Good anecdotes that helped to set the framework although I find it hard to believe any person is a saintly as he He acts as an advocate for the MacNamara s Morons On this score he does a superlative job He is sympathetic to their plight and works his way through most of the typical cases He documents of the their plight in theater and post war He is perhaps less sympathetic to the average soldier who s lives depends on theses Mel Bay Presents Jazz Saxophone Licks, Phrases and Patterns unfortunate people who have been placed by others in the wrong place and time Easier to do when you are a rear echelon soldier I supposeHe does a cogent job of intersecting the three tasks although I think it can be reasonably said his first role that of being a historian is in conflict with the other two roles and it showed by what it omittedI too served in the military I met Sergeants corrupt and stupid and than a few who were in fact brilliant both intellectually and those with emotionally intelligence I also met native born Sergeants who could barely speak or read english and yet managed to get in during other low points in recruitment in the Carter years also not mentioned They knew their profession and euipment thoroughly and were generally good NCOsI met many officers who either kind andor intelligent I met officers who were openly racist I met officers that were jerks who would have indeed been in danger of being fragged for failing to respect even in the most militarily basic ways their subordinates I m am speaking of a person mentioned in the book Colin Powell with who I had a run in with as a PFC I did not walk away favorably impressed No wonder he repositioned himself in his tent every nightGood effort important topic Let s not do the draft again Either a nation muster Die ewigen Toten up enough volunteers or it picked the wrong fight or likely the wrong politicians